The process of moving one’s pieces from their starting posts to new positions where their activity and mobility are enhanced. A lead in development gives you more force in a specific area of the board. This is a temporary imbalance because the opponent will eventually catch up.
When your opponent is defending and you are attacking or putting pressure on him, it is said that you have the initiative. This can also turn out to be a temporary imbalance.
Key Files and Squares (Control of)
Files, ranks, and diagonals act as pathways for your pieces, while squares act as homes. Whole plans can center around the domination of a file, or the creation of a weak square in the enemy camp.
The security of one’s King.
The pieces and pawns, excluding the King. A material advantage is obtained by winning a piece of greater value than the one you give up. For example, giving up a pawn to win a Rook means that you have an advantage in material.
The positioning of the whole pawn mass. Also referred to as the pawn skeleton. A broad subject that encompasses doubled pawns, isolated pawns, backward pawns, passed pawns, etc.
The territory controlled by each player. Thus, whoever controls the most territory has a spacial advantage.
Superior Minor Piece
When a minor piece (the Bishops and Knights are the minor pieces) is much better than its counterpart.